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THE SCIENCE



Adsorbtion (with a d) is caused by intermolecular Van der Waals Forces allowing molecules to stick to a solid surface. The solid surface can be described using a Langmuir model. In this model a surface can bind with a number of gaseous molecules at any number of active sites. These active sites may be packed much closer together than molecules dispersed in a gaseous state. When dispersed gaseous molecules in a closed container interact with a surface packed with active sites, the surface may appear to "suck the gas molecules" as the gas molecules bind to the densely packed active sites.

This suction is particularly true of several Activated Carbons because the porous surface causes a large number of active sites to pack together.

In 1916, Irving Langmuir presented his model for the adsorbtion of species onto simple surfaces. Langmuir was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1932 for his work concerning surface chemistry. He hypothesized that a given surface has a certain number of equivalent sites to which a species can "stick", either by physisorption or chemisorption. His theory began when he postulated that gaseous molecules do not rebound elastically from a surface, but are held by it in a similar way to groups of molecules in solid bodies.

In basic terms, the two scientists have confirmed;

Given the correct Activated Carbon and Delivery Vehicle, it is now possible to remove these gases and fumes, easily and inexpensively, from air and hold them safely on the activated carbon. The bed of Activated Carbon has to have sufficient depth to allow the gases time to pass through the carbon and the molecules to stick to it. Nearly all Air Purifiers on the market do not have this depth of Carbon and do not use specific Activated Carbon for a specific type of gas. 

Ravair Extractors are specially designed with the correct rate of flow and back pressure to ensure that the contaminated air flows at the correct speed through the bed of Activated Carbon, so the molecules of the gas stick to the solid Activated Carbon in the process of adsorbtion, as described above. Once adsorbed the onto the Activated Carbon the gas molecules CANNOT ever be released. This explains how Ravair Extraction Units can removed these gases from the air. For example, Ammonia, one of the strongest smelling gases, is a compound (NH³) of Nitrogen and Hydrogen. Once it is adsorbed (stuck) on to the specially made Activated Carbon it becomes two separate elements, Nitrogen and Hydrogen, which on their own do not smell. This also means that the Ravair Extraction Units can adsorb the gases and smells and do not smell themselves! 



There are two Extractors in this range, especially designed for the total removal of fumes and odours prevalent in the Nursing/Care/Retirement/Hospital/Pet Home environment, Nail, Hair and Beauty Salon or in your own Home or Workplace.

These gases and odours include Ammonia, (urine) Methane (diarrhoea) and "foul smelling discharge" from leg ulcers. These Ravair Extractor Units are totally new and Unique and, as far as we are aware, the Specially Prepared Activated Carbon in not found in any other extractors of this type in the UK. This particular type of Activated Carbon was designed to combat similar fumes in Slaughter Houses in Dallas, Texas, where Ammonia fumes were so intense they were a threat to Human Life. 

Nail and Beauty
Salons;

It was, not long ago, the normal advice from trading standard officers
and local authority officers to any Hair, Beauty or Nail Salon to use
expensive, and often ineffective ventilation systems to exhaust these fumes and
toxic odours outside. This is now not the correct advice, for a number of
reasons;

 

1, The toxic fumes that are exhausted into the atmosphere will not just
disperse, they WILL damage the environment, birds, animals in the form of Air
Pollution.

2, Generally most salons etc have living space or premises above them.
If these toxic fumes are exhausted outside the living space immediately above
the exhaust point will inevitably draw in these toxic fumes through open
windows, air bricks etc. These fumes WILL damage health, especially in the very
young or very old, pregnant ladies or those with existing breathing ailments.

3. The air Must be Cleaned at source, before it can escape in the
general atmosphere and cause damage.

4. It is a widespread misguided theory in the Nail Industry that the
government document, HSE (Health and Safety Executive) document Coshh 13 is
merely for Guidance, and the Nail Industry is unregulated in this area. This is
ABSOLUTELY NOT THE CASE, This very important document is used and adhered to by
all local trading standards officers in every local authority in the UK. This
is a guideline to help both the local authority and the Salon Owner to adhere
to the law, as stated in the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations
2002.
This is stated clearly in the very first paragraph of this document and
is often ignored, or it's importance not realised, by Nail Training Schools
across the UK. If a therapist or even a client contracts a major illness
through the inhalation of toxic fumes in your salon, and it is proved, it is
unlikely your insurance will cover you in the event of a claim, if you have not
demonstrated that you have adhered to these guidelines and by definition the
Control of Substance Act 2002.       

5, Independent Tests, (available on this website or contact us for
written confirmation) prove, without doubt, that our units not only comply with
HSE Coshh 13 but exceed it's, very low demand's, by at least 5 times, (airflow
required 0.5m/s, airflow actual 2.5m/s, nail dust extractor).

6, Ravair Ltd has been acknowledged by Members of Parliament and in
particular by DEFRA, who has kept the Chief Scientist "informed" of
our breakthrough, (All in writing from the House of Commons), and the
pioneering work in this area. If any local authority officers would like help
in this area or just proof of our statements please contact Ravair Ltd by email
or telephone the helpline.        

 

Nail Bars;This same process of adsorbtion as used for ammonia etc also works,
using a different activated carbon, for Nail and Beauty Salons. This is
confirmed by Nick Garrett Senior Chemist in the largest Carbon Manufacturing
Company in the USA and Europe; These gases are found in ALL acrylic nail products
and are highly toxic and very smelly!

Hi Nick,

  The components we are
particularly interested in are;

  ETHYL ACETATE,

  ISOPROPYIDENEDIPHNYL,

4BISOXYHYDROXYPROPYL,

5.  METHACRYLATE,

6.  HEMA

7.  POLTETHYLMETHACRYLATE,

8.  BENZOYL PEROXIDE,

 

Reply;        All of these molecules will stick well to this
carbon, and if the concentrations are high you could get 90% or more wt/wt
uptake and if the contact time is right, more or less complete removal.

 

 

Home and Office; These machines will also remove fumes and smells such as pets and animals, take away
food, smelly socks and teenagers, unpleasant baby nappy smells, damp smells and
cigarette smells in your home, caravan, boat or any internal living space. The
40mm deep Glass Hepa Filter will also remove pollutants and particles such as
pet dander, dust, pollen etc.

The Glass Hepa Filter is nearly 10 times deeper that leading
brand "Air Purifiers" and will remove particles and pollutants 0.3
microns and above to EU Standard EN 1822-1. Suitable for Hay Fever and Asthma
Suffers.

 

 Air Pollution in the work place; Given that most people spend about 90% of their time indoors, it is easy to see why air quality has become such an important issue in modern times. Air pollution concerns, though, are not a new phenomenon. The discovery of fire, for example, often made caves difficult to live and work in for early man. More recently, the extensive use of coal made cities, especially heavily industrialized urban areas, unhealthy-air places.

While air pollution in the home is a big problem, the same problem exists at work. One glaring difference, though, is the fact that people at home generally have more control over the pollutants found on their property (at least for those contaminants about which something can be done), as well as means by which to deal with them. At work, the air pollution problem is entirely in the hands of employers, although government agencies and better air quality proponents have been known to affect their behavior in this arena.

Considering that air pollution can not only impact the health of employees but also their productivity and availability for work, many employers have developed a keener interest in establishing cleaner air environments. This “interest” has been further enhanced by the many lawsuits that been launched by people who have been hurt because of air pollution inside work environments.

What kind of pollutants can one find in places of work? Well, that depends on the nature of the business, nonprofit or government agency in question. It has long been established that places that deal with dangerous toxins (manufacturers, auto repair places, chemical plants, hospitals, etc.) pose significant health threats. These places, however, are closely monitored by government agencies (e.g., Local Authority, Health and Safety Officers). Office environments, however, also pose air pollution problems that have been mostly underestimated and less effectively dealt with-probably because of the subtlety of the pollutants involved.

Indoor air pollution is, of course, tied to outdoor air pollution. Because offices are often in or near urban environments, they are subject to the often heavily polluted air in those environments. These include high-ozone levels (especially on hot days), and the chemicals associated with high traffic areas (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, etc.).Another major source of air pollution in the workplace is tobacco smoke; it alone can involve about 4000 different mostly carcinogenic contaminants. Office environments, though, can also include mold (especially if high humidity or unaddressed water damage exists), radon gas (especially if the work setting is in a basement), bioaerosols (e.g., air-borne germs from sick people or animals), volatile organic compounds (cleaners and disinfectants, air fresheners, dry cleaned clothes, etc.), pesticides (sometimes used irresponsibly in poorly ventilated areas), asbestos (insulation, ceiling tiles, etc.), lead (especially in older buildings), and formaldehyde (pressed-wood furniture, plywood wall paneling, etc.).

Some of the symptoms of indoor air pollution include throat, eye, and throat irritation, dizziness, headaches, sneezing, coughing, trouble breathing, and fatigue. Medical problems resulting can include hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, heart disease, cancer, and, in extreme cases, Legionnaire’s disease, the flu, measles, etc.

The best measures to decrease air pollution in the workplace include increased ventilation, source isolation, source control, dehumidification, and the use of filters. By far, source removal (such as the banning of smoking) is the most effective approach. Thereafter, a combined strategy (e.g., Activated Carbon Air Purifiers, HEPA air filters, regular cleaning schedules, reduced use of chemicals, etc.) should be utilized; it can help make air at work safer for everyone.

 

USA Pregnancy Association.

What if I work as a cosmetologist and am pregnant?

For cosmetologists, the risks during pregnancy come from the amount of exposure to hair,nail and beauty treatment chemicals, which is affected by the number of hours worked as well as working conditions. One study indicates a greater risk for miscarriage in women who apply large numbers of bleaches and permanent hair dyes, work more than 40 hours per week, and/or work in salons that offer nail sculpturing services. Proper working conditions, such as wearing protective gloves, not eating or drinking in the work area, and making sure your work area is well-ventilated are also important to limit exposure to these treatment chemicals.

 

THE UNIVERSAL ANTIDOTE AND DETOXIFIER THAT EXTENDS LIFE: ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
by Richard C. Kaufman, Ph.D.

 

 

Activated Charcoal is a highly absorbent gritty black material that is commonly found in air and water filters. Activated Charcoal is created by carbonizing organic matter in a kiln under anaerobic conditions and activating the material with oxidizing gases like steam or air at high temperatures. This oxidative process erodes the charcoal's internal surfaces and increases its adsorption capacity by creating an internal network of very fine pores. Usually bone char, coconut shells, peat, coal, petroleum coke, and sawdust are the starting materials for making Activated Charcoal.

EARLY USE OF CHARCOAL

The medical uses for charcoal date back to the Egyptian Papyrus of 1550 B.C. During the time of Hippocrates (400 B.C.) physicians treated epilepsy and anthrax with charcoal. In the 1700's charcoal was often prescribed for bilious problems (excessive bile excretion). After the development of the charcoal activation process (1870 to 1920), many reports appeared in medical journals about Activated Charcoal as an antidote for poisons and a cure for intestinal disorders.

 

              ANTIDOTE FOR DRUGS, CHEMICALS AND POISONS

         Activated Charcoal has the well-earned reputation of being a universal        antidote. It can adsorb most organic chemicals, many inorganic chemicals and countless poisonous substances before they can cause harm.

GENERAL DETOXIFICATION

Very few health practitioners realize that Activated Charcoal is the best single supplement for enhancing detoxification. Detoxification is an on-going biological process that prevents toxins (from infectious agents, food, air, water, and substances that contact the skin) from destroying health. Chronic exposure to toxins produces cellular damage, diverse diseases, allergic like reactions, compromised immunity and premature aging.

Activated Charcoal reduces the activity of some viruses. So if you catch a cold or the flu, try Activated Charcoal. You may suffer less and heal faster.

Activated Charcoal also prevents the poisonous activity of many harmful bacteria in the human body by adsorbing the toxins and enzymes that they generate. Studies have shown that Activated Charcoal is an effective treatment for dysentery, cholera, and many infectious conditions of the digestive tract.

   

NOT ALL CHARCOAL IS ALIKE

Numerous companies manufacture Activated Charcoals, each of which can have different adsorptive capacities. Different source materials and manufacturing procedures give each brand of Activated Charcoal it's own pore diameters and internal volume that determine its adsorption capacity.

REFERENCES:

D.O. Cooney, Activated Charcoal Antidotal and other Medical Uses. Marcel Dekker, New York and Basel, 1983.
V. Frolkis, et al., "Enterosorption in prolonging old animal life." Exp. Gerontol. 19; 217-25, 1984.
E.P. Krenzelok and M. B. Heller, "In vivo comparative effectiveness of five commercial activated charcoal products." Vet. Hum. Toxicol, 28; 498, 1986.
K. Kulig, et al., "Management of acutely poisoned patients without gastric emptying." Ann. Emerg. Med. 114:562-67, 1985.
P. Kuusisto, et al., "Effect of activated charcoal on hypercholesterolemia." Lancet 16: 366-67, August 1986.
J. Mattson and H. J. Mark, Activated Carbon. Marcel Dekker, New York and Basel, 1971.
G. Park, et al., "Expanded role of charcoal in the poisoned and overdosed patient." Arch. Int. Med. 146: 969-73, 1986.
Reduction of Human Organchalide Burdens, Foundation for Advancements in Science and Education, Los Angeles, California, 1983.
J. A. Riese and F. Damrac, "Use of activated charcoal in gastroenterology: value for flatulence and nervous diarrhea." J. Am. Ger. Soc. 12: 500, 1964.
W. Watson, "Factors influencing the clinical efficacy of activated charcoal." Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 21: 160-66, 1987.
Navarro RP; Navarro KR; Krenzelok EP Relative efficacy and palatability of three activated charcoal mixtures. Vet Hum Toxicol, 19(8):6-9 1980 Feb.
Gwilt PR; Perrier D Influence of thickening agents on the antidotal efficacy of activated charcoal. Clin Toxicol, 19(8):89-92 1976.
Topuzov EG; Beliakov NA; Malachev MM; Umerov AK; Solomennikov AV; Gritsenko IV; Kokaia AA Use of enterosorption in biliary tract cancers complicated with mechanical jaundice. Vopr Onkol, 42(2):100-3 1996.
Beloshitski(r)i VV A clinico-biochemical basis for the use of enterosorption in 
severe craniocerebral trauma Lik Sprava, 42(5):145-8